• Alexander L. Ido University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, Claveria Campus


Biofuel production from microalgae has been explored nowadays to substitute declining fossil fuel. Conversion of microalgae (e.g., Nanochloropsis oculata) to biofuel usually used fresh biomass and not the residual ones. In this study, the characterization of residual N. oculata microalgae and its potential for biofuel production was investigated. Results of proximate and ultimate analyses and high heating value were compared to its original values gathered and recorded during the characterization of fresh N. oculata samples. Particles of its residual being characterized exhibited high uniformity. Result of characterization showed that volatile matter of N. oculata drastically reduced from 81.27% (fresh sample) to 62.00%  (residual sample), implying a possible drop of extractable bio-oil within N. oculata. Its ash content increased from 13.57% to 36% following a decline of fixed carbon from 5.17% to 2.00%, suggesting quality deterioration of residual N. oculata. Additionally, the increase of ash content considerably reduced the elemental compositions: carbon (48.31% to 33.44%), hydrogen (7.66% to 4.52%), oxygen (24.85% to 21.62), nitrogen (4.80% to 3.55%). The high heating value has lowered from 17.4 MJ/kg to 14.94 MJ/kg. These apparent declined of N. oculata characteristics for biofuel production, however, are still within the range of values of most algal species (macro, micro, green, blue-green, brown, red, diatom, marine, and freshwater) suggesting comparability and acceptability in microalgal-based biofuel industry in general. 


Álvarez-Díaz, P. D., Ruiz, J., Arbib, Z., Barragán, J., Garrido-Pérez, M. C., & Perales, J. A. (2015). Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process. Bioresource Technology, 181, 90–96.

Bahadar, A., & Bilal Khan, M. (2013). Progress in energy from microalgae: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 27, 128–148.

Bennion, E. P., Ginosar, D. M., Moses, J., Agblevor, F., & Quinn, J. C. (2015). Lifecycle assessment of microalgae to biofuel: Comparison of thermochemical processing pathways. Applied Energy, 154, 1062–1071.

Biagini, E., Barontini, F., & Tognotti, L. (2006). Devolatilization of Biomass Fuels and Biomass Components Studied by TG / FTIR Technique, 4486–4493.

Brennan, L., & Owende, P. (2010). Biofuels from microalgae—A review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(2), 557–577.

Cai, J., He, Y., Yu, X., Banks, S. W., Yang, Y., Zhang, X., … Bridgwater, A. V. (2017). Review of physicochemical properties and analytical characterization of lignocellulosic biomass, 76(March), 309–322.

Czernik, S., & Bridgwater, A. V. (2004). Overview of Applications of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil, (12), 590–598.

De Luna, M. D. G., Doliente, L. M. T., Ido, A. L., & Chung, T. (2017). In situ transesterification of Chlorella sp. microalgae using LiOH-pumice catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 5(3), 2830–2835.

Ji, M.-K., Yun, H.-S., Park, Y.-T., Kabra, A. N., Oh, I.-H., & Choi, J. (2015). Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production. Journal of Environmental Management, 159, 115–120.

Keris-Sen, U. D., Sen, U., Soydemir, G., & Gurol, M. D. (2014). An investigation of ultrasound effect on microalgal cell integrity and lipid extraction efficiency. Bioresource Technology, 152, 407–413.

Klein, B. C., Bonomi, A., & Filho, R. M. (2018). Integration of microalgae production with industrial biofuel facilities : A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82(June 2017), 1376–1392.

Loo, S. van, & Koppejan, J. (2008). The handbook of biomass combustion and co-firing.

Maeda, Y., Yoshino, T., Matsunaga, T., Matsumoto, M., & Tanaka, T. (2018). Marine microalgae for production of biofuels and chemicals. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 50, 111–120.

Maguyon, M. C. C., & Capareda, S. C. (2013). Evaluating the effects of temperature on pressurized pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis oculata based on products yields and characteristics. Energy Conversion and Management, 76, 764–773.

Martins, A. A., Caetano, N. S., Mata, T. M., Martins, A. A., Caetano, N. S., & Mata, T. M. (2010).
Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14, 217–232.

Naik, S., Goud, V. V, Rout, P. K., Jacobson, K., & Dalai, A. K. (2010). Characterization of Canadian biomass for alternative renewable biofuel. Renewable Energy, 35(8), 1624–1631.
Napan, K., Christianson, T., Voie, K., & Quinn, J. C. (2015). Quantitative assessment of microalgae biomass and lipid stability post-cultivation, 3(April), 1–6.

Nhuchhen D.R., Basu, P., & Acharya, B. (2014). A Comprehensive Review on Biomass
Torrefaction. International Journal of Renewable Energy & Biofuels. DOI: 10.5171/2014.506376

Pratap, A., & Chouhan, S. (2013). Critical Analysis of Process Parameters for Bio-oil Production via Pyrolysis of Biomass : A Review Critical Analysis of Process Parameters for Bio-oil Production via Pyrolysis of Biomass : A Review, (July).

Ruiz, J., Arbib, Z., Álvarez-díaz, P. D., Garrido-pérez, C., Barragán, J., & Perales, J. A. (2014). Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus. Journal of Biotechnology, 178, 32–37.

Singh, H., Sapra, P. K., & Sidhu, B. S. (2013). Evaluation and Characterization of Different Biomass Residues through Proximate & Ultimate Analysis and Heating Value, 2(2), 6–10.

Sukarni, Sudjito, S., Hamidi, N., Yanuhar, U., Wardana, I. N. G., Sukarni, … Wardana, I. N. G. (2014). Potential and properties of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata as biomass fuel feedstock. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 5(4), 279–290.

Syazwani, O., Rashid, U., & Yap, Y. H. T. (2015). Low-cost solid catalyst derived from waste Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) for biodiesel production using microalgae oil. Energy Conversion and Management, 101, 749–756.

Tumuluru, J.S., Wright, C.T., Hess, J. R., & Kenny, K.L. (2011). A review of biomass densification systems to develop uniform feedstock commodities for bioenergy application. Biofuel, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 5:683–707. 10.1002/bbb.324

Vassilev, S. V, & Vassileva, C. G. (2016). Composition , properties and challenges of algae biomass for biofuel application : An overview. Fuel, 181, 1–33.

Wang, B., Li, Y., Wu, N., & Lan, C. Q. (2008). CO2 bio-mitigation using microalgae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 79(5), 707–718.

Yuan, X., Huang, H., Zeng, G., Li, H., Wang, J., Zhou, C., … Liu, Z. Z. (2011). Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge. Bioresource Technology, 102(5), 4104–4110.

Zhao, B., Su, Y., Zhang, Y., & Cui, G. (2015). Carbon dioxide fixation and biomass production from combustion flue gas using energy microalgae. Energy, 89, 347–357.
How to Cite
IDO, Alexander L.. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESIDUAL Nanochloropsis oculata MICROALGAE AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION. Journal of Higher Education Research Disciplines, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 21-31, june 2019. ISSN 2546-0579. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 14 apr. 2021.